Today’s world is going through a process of rearranging, re-evaluating and re-analyzing basic concepts such as globalization, territories, the state, borders and, in particular, sovereignty. Regarding the latter, it can be noted that there is no consensus on its possible origins. Authors such as H. Heller assert that it acquired legal-political meaning during the Renaissance, around the same time as the modern state, and became a central component of the omnipotence of the emerging state. Others, such as G. Jellinek, believe that it has already existed since the end of the Middle Ages, namely in the twelfth century, a time when this word alluded to a “sovereign” who, “in his sphere of dominance”, independently determined the will of anyone else. That is, the “sovereign” did not allow another chief (“superanus”) (“souvränetät”), including both earthly authorities and God himself. u0009 Over time, this conceptual category has acquired new meanings, among others, such as “Summa potestas”, “Summum imperium”, “maiestas” and “plenitudo potestatis”. It is that, as he notes. Dunning, the lordship should sprout as dissensions were blown up in matters of power, and there were so broad powers of the feudal lord, that they differed according to the position he held within the state. Feudal hierarchy, that is, depending on the greater or lesser degree of subordination his followers had towards him.
At the beginning of the fourteenth century, Marsilio of Padua would make a reckless proclamation of his time, arguing that a political community could be self-sufficient and need no other power to live because it was sovereign. Yes, we were reaching the moment of his liberation: Sovereignty would come no longer from God but from the people. Hence Machiavelli’s conclusion: Sovereignty is the attribute of the authority of a society which is itself the absolute and permanent sovereign, the creator of its system and history. A vision that inspires Bodino to define it as the “absolute and permanent power of the Republic” and this would make him the first intellectual to establish the principle of the unity of political power and the exclusive source of all power-working powers of the state which does not recognize in its actions anything other than voluntary taxation.
However, there was still a way to go to the Sovereign. In the 16th and 17th centuries, authors such as Grotius, Gentili, Vatel, Vitoria, Loyseay and Le Bret embroidered around them. the first proclamation of the sovereignty of every nation capable of self-government; Gentile, qualifies it as a higher power; Vatel, defining it as the perfection of all in fullness; Vitoria specifies that the state will be sovereign to the extent that its power is sovereign (“state power”) and is able to determine its jurisdiction (“full power”); Loisau identified it as the “top of power” used by each king; Le Bret maintains its indivisibility, either in one person or on a board. In the eighteenth century, Altusius reoriented the Bodenian perspective, stating that the sovereign belonged to society, not to the king, to whom he was bound by charter; Hobbes will find in them a uniaxial duality: men give sovereignty to whomever represents them, and, if they depose him, they simply take from him what is theirs; Rousseau will abound in expressing that the real sovereignty is society and the people, and that every citizen is both sovereign and submissive, and therefore sovereignty resides in the people. In short, no one can obey or be commanded by an individual except by the general will, since popular sovereignty is absolute, permanent, indivisible, inalienable, imprescriptible, and an original authority that does not depend on others. It is the moment when the newly formed United States of America, like the Federal Republic of Germany in the nineteenth century with “Länder” – “Bund”, makes its sovereignty lie in the union of states as well as in the federation. the Union. , while in Russia until 1917 power and sovereignty would pass to the proletariat, but its exercise would be limited to the Communist Party. The twentieth century was in its infancy, and with it the paradigm shift that globalization would bring about in the second half.
Yes, the achievement of sovereignty was one of the greatest victories of a people seeking independence, because its loss means the loss of power over itself. That is why we must turn our eyes beyond the ephemeral, detached political discourses saturated with theoretical, historical, legal and political distortions, of hatred and resentment. Decades, centuries, millennia await us full of reflections by men of multiple cultural origins and, above all, imbued with a global vision, geared towards building a better world in which the entire human community can take charge. Fate and dominion. His primary concern was, as it is ours now, to be abducted by the all-encompassing will of one man.
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